Economic Objectives of Indiviuduals, Firms and Government Essay Sample

Net income maximization is the procedure of obtaining the highest possible degree of net income through the production and sale of goods and services. Net income is the difference between the entire gross a steadfast receives from selling end product and the entire cost of bring forthing that end product. Profit-maximization means that a house seeks the production degree that generates the greatest difference between entire gross and entire cost.

Net income Satisfying

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In many houses separation of ownership and control is present as the stockholders who run the company frequently barely of all time acquire involved in the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours running of the house. However this is a job as although the proprietors want to maximize net incomes. the directors will hold less motive to make this as they won’t get the same wagess. Therefore most directors will make a minimal degree of net income merely to maintain the stockholders happy but besides enjoy work and acquire on with others. However this could be overcome. to some extent by giving directors portion options and public presentation related wage yet this could be hard to mensurate in some industries.

Gross saless Maximisation.

Most houses frequently seek to add to their market portion even if this means that they will turnover less net income. this could go on because of assorted grounds for illustration: an addition in market portion increases the monopoly power and may enable the house to set up monetary values and do more net income in the long tally. Another illustration could be that directors frequently prefer to work for bigger companies at it will take them to a higher wage. The concluding ground could be that increasing the firm’s market portion could coerce their challengers out of concern e. g. the large supermarkets have led to an lessening in local stores. this is because there is more supermarkets about hence people will take to travel to them as they offer more merchandises and usually aren’t that far off.

Social/ Environmental concerns.

Firms which have put in topographic point these schemes have been successful ; hence this has encouraged more houses to see seting in topographic point similar aims. However others may reason that they can see it as another chance to increase net incomes.

Economic Aims of the Government

The four major aims are full employment. monetary value stableness. a high. but sustainable. rate of economic growing. and maintaining the Balance of Payments in equilibrium

Growth and low rising prices

Growth and low rising prices have ever been of import. Without growing peoples’ criterion of life will non increase. and if rising prices is excessively high so the value of money falls contradicting any addition in life criterions. Nowadays these are decidedly the two most of import aims of UK macroeconomic policy. The Chancellor is ever traveling on about ‘sustainable growth’ . intending growing without rising prices. Probably the biggest piece of economic intelligence each month is the determination taken by the Monetary Policy Committee ( MPC ) over involvement rates. th`eir exclusive aim being the 2. 5 % mark for the growing in RPIX ( plus or minus 1 % ) .

Keep a low degree on unemployment

Although this aim was non considered so of import in the eighties. when unemployment rose to over 3 million. it is still considered of import by most economic experts. and the current Labor authorities have surely made the end of full employment more major.

It is of import to maintain unemployment degrees every bit low as possible as high unemployment is expensive for the authorities therefore this means it is expensive for the revenue enhancement remunerator. For every unemployed individual. there are two costs to the authorities. First. the unemployed worker will be entitled to benefit/benefits. and if he/she is immature. or older but remains unemployed for a long period of clip. he/she will be offered developing under the ‘new deal’ . There is besides the less obvious cost of the loss of income revenue enhancement revenues the worker would hold paid for if they were in work. These workers would hold been paying VAT every bit good through their purchases. Put together. some economic experts have estimated that the cost to taxpayers of each unemployed individual is up to ?9. 000 a twelvemonth.

Price Stability

Some would state that the chief ground why the control of rising prices is so of import is that if rising prices gets out of control. the economic system stops turning. If rising prices rises. the Monetary Policy Committee ( MPC ) is forced to raise involvement rates. Consumers will halt adoption to pass and houses will halt adoption to put. The lodging market will slouch. and along with it all the place betterment ingestion that goes with it. Manufacturer’s exports will go less competitory. The economic system may good drop into a recession.

Economic Aims of persons


On the whole in economic science we make the premise that employees are interested in maximizing the rewards that they earn. In world this may be a simplistic attack and it is recognised that workers will be interested non merely in the wage. but besides the on the job conditions. the fringe benefit. vacations and the nature of the occupation itself. However in economic sciences we assume that workers will seek to maximise the wagess they get. and equilibrate this against the clip and attempt spent working.


Consumers have a limited sum of income and hence demand to do picks. Their chief aim is to maximise their ain good being or economic public assistance. Most of economic theory is based on the thought of rational consumers who make determinations based on trying to maximise their ain public assistance. This doesn’t mean that we can non give to charity or do things for other people. nevertheless it may intend that we get satisfaction from making it which makes it worthwhile. Economists in the nineteenth century tried to mensurate merely how much satisfaction people got by inquiring them to show how much they enjoyed different merchandises. ‘Utils’ were invented as a unit of satisfaction. This attack did non work out excessively good because while in a topic like mathematics it is straightforward to hold on what a centimetre is. because we all have swayers with indistinguishable graduated tables. but there is no manner in economic sciences of holding what one unit of satisfaction feels like.

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