Etymology of Political Science
Jusayan, Janine Ann June 20, 2009 M0522 Prof. Ramil Mondejar 1. Guidelines for effective expository writing * STEP ONE: SELECTING A TOPIC If your professor assigns you a specific topic to write about, then this step is completed before you even begin. However, often the teacher will allow students to choose their own essay topic, so it is important to be able to choose effectively. This is also true is the professor proposed a broad topic, but demands that you write about a particular facet of that larger subject.
Whenever choosing an expository essay topic, it is important to narrow down your choice so that it is appropriate to the essay length requirements. Conversely, if the professor wants an especially lengthy essay, do not choose too narrow of a topic so that it becomes difficult to fill up the pages with information. * STEP TWO: CHOOSE A DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERN There are a variety of ways to develop a custom expository essay, just as there is a variety of ways to convey information. The following are just a few examples of the developmental patterns you can adopt for your own essay:
Definition – This may be the most straightforward of the developmental patterns. As its name suggests, you will simply use the expository essay to thoroughly define a topic. Example – In this developmental pattern, you will provide and describe an example of a particular subject or group. Cause and Effect – With this developmental pattern, you will illustrate the relationship between to variables, one dependent on the other. Describe the many ways in which this particular variable affects the other, and explain why it does so.
Classification – This developmental pattern is used to categorize multiple subjects into separate or distinct groups by certain criteria. Compare and Contrast – With this developmental pattern, the writer will examine both the similarities and the differences between two or more distinct subjects. * STEP THREE: CHOOSE AN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN The choice of organizational pattern really depends upon the length of the essay. For shorter essays, teachers often espouse the “five paragraph” organizational pattern, in which there is one introductory paragraph, three body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph.
Of course, this is not feasible if the essay is of longer length, but it is important to provide both an introduction and a conclusion, regardless of length. * STEP FOUR: PERFORM ADEQUATE RESEARCH ON YOUR TOPIC Too often students begin writing expository essays without first having learned about their subject. If the teacher requires you to write the essay with knowledge from the top of your head, then obviously you will not have to perform research. However, if this is not the case then it is vital that you take some time to learn about your topic before beginning to write.
Doing so will only lead to a much stronger essay. 2. Paragraph and its essentials Topic Sentence: A paragraph has a main idea which is expressed in a topic sentence. This sentence can appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a paragraph. The topic sentence in our example paragraph above is: The sentences in most well written paragraphs may be analyzed into four general functions. The main idea sentence or topic sentence has several functions: 1. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph. In our example: The sentences in most well written paragraphs may be analyzed into four general functions. . It limits the topic of the paragraph. In our example, the topic is limited to the four functions a paragraph has that is well written. The words well written control the idea and indicate the focus of the topic. 3. It often suggests how the paragraph will be developed. From the topic sentence of the example, we can assume that the paragraph will list the four functions of a well written essay. Supporting Sentences: A paragraph has main supporting ideas, all relating to the topic sentence. Our paragraph has the following supporting ideas: 1. Paragraphs have paragraph introducers which establish the topic focus. . Paragraphs have paragraph developers which present various examples or details. 3. Paragraphs have viewpoint or content modulators which provide a smooth transition between the sentences. 4. Paragraphs have paragraph terminators which conclude the ideas. 5. Not all paragraphs must have all of these elements, but most contain a combination of these four types. Details: The supporting ideas themselves may be further supported by facts, details, or statistics. In a longer paragraph the first supporting idea might be further supported by giving examples of such paragraph introducers. Logical Order:
The ideas in the paragraph must be presented in logical order. In our example, the ideas are introduced chronologically as they would be used in a paragraph. It would not be logical to first write about the paragraph terminators when those conclude the paragraph. Logical Connectors: To indicate this progression of ideas and to provide an orderly connection between the ideas (coherence), writers use logical connecting words, also called “transition” words. These words do not only help the flow of the words, but they also indicate how the ideas in the paragraph are connected (chronological, causal, etc. Concluding Sentence: A paragraph may have a concluding sentence but it doesn’t have to. A concluding sentence expresses the main idea one more time, only in different words. Unity and Coherence: When a paragraph includes a sequence of sentences that are all related to the topic sentence, it is unified. A paragraph is coherent when it has a continuous line of thought that passes from sentence to sentence. The introductory paragraph about the functions of a paragraph has unity because all of the sentences relate to the topic sentence. Transitional words, such as first, second, etc. give the paragraph coherence. In other words, an effective paragraph is both coherent and unified. 3. Essentials of an effective paragraph a) Presentation of single idea. b) A sequence of well connected sentences. c) Thematic unit within the paragraph. d) Conciseness and exactness. In technical and professional writing, a paragraph may consist of the following three kinds of sentences. a) Main sentences. b) Major supportive sentences. c) Minor supportive sentences. These sentences may be arranged logically by taking care of the proper distribution of emphasis in a paragraph. 4. Methods of Paragraph Development
Narration – sequencing of events The showing of the beehive had everyone’s attention, and Bernie had to remind several of the boys not to touch it. It was fragile! Bernie continued his explanation. “But, even though there are thousands of species, there are only 2 kinds of bees: the social kind and the solitary kind. The bees that came from this hive were social bees, the kind that make honey. A whole bunch of ’em used to live here. ” Bernie went on to explain the intricacies of how honey is made and how bee-keeping as a hobby had become very popular. Two of the girls told him, they thought the hive was … orgeous. Mary Ann Hastings, angry cause Bernie’s show and tell was better than hers, tried not to be interested in the beehive, but … even she just had to take a good look at it … you never got to see one up this close!! Description – use of words to represent the appearance or nature of a subject Watson and the Shark is a painting by John Singleton Copely. In the foreground of the painting, one naked man is being attacked by a huge gray shark in the cold and choppy seawater. One small overloaded rowboat is near the naked man and the frightening shark. There are nine horrified men in this rowboat.
They are trying to rescue the naked man. One young man takes a long spear and wants to kill the shark. Some people are reaching for his hand, and some are throwing a rope for him to catch. In the background of the painting, under the dark and cloudy sky, there are many ships stopping in the stormy harbor. The whole painting makes people feel tension and fear. Process – series of steps to get something done How to Bake a Cake First, assemble the ingredients. Then, mix the batter. Bake the cake. Next is making frosting. Remove cake from oven. Finally, frost the cake after cooling. Eat and enjoy!
Comparison & Contrast – pointing out similarities and differences I’ve lived in Vancouver more than 20 years and, although I still have fond memories of Quebec City, I prefer it here. One reason is climate. Quebec City hosts a “Carnaval” every winter featuring ice carving and citizens drinking Caribou (liquor) to keep warm. In Vancouver, on the other hand, winter includes blossoming cherry and plum trees in January. Another reason to prefer Vancouver is its size. Quebec City is a small capital city, much like Victoria. In contrast, Vancouver is a bustling metropolis that has one of the most multi-cultural populations in the world.
My final reason for preferring Vancouver over Quebec City is language. Quebecois speak French, a language I speak poorly. In Vancouver, however, people speak English, so I feel more comfortable here. Although I remember my time in Quebec City fondly, I much prefer to live in the gentle climate of big city Vancouver. Cause & Effect – shows how events are influenced by or caused by others Global climate change resulting from the accumulation of greenhouse gases, for example, is likely to have significant health effects, both direct and indirect. An average global temperature rise of 3-4°C, predicted or the year 2100 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ,will greatly increase the number of days in the United States with temperatures over 38°C(100°F), with a resulting sharp rise in heat-related mortality. Deaths would occur primarily from heat strokes, heart attacks, and cerebral strokes. The very young, poor, and elderly, as well as those with chronic cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, are most at risk. During the two-week heat wave of July 1993 in the eastern United States, 84 people died in Philadelphia alone as a result of the higher temperatures. Definition – giving of meaning
Cholera is an intestinal infection that can be described according to its cause, symptoms, and treatment. A bacterium, called Vibrio cholera, is the causative agent of cholera. It can be spread through contaminated food, water, or feces. Cholera patients may exhibit different symptoms that can vary from mild to severe. Some symptoms are watery diarrhea and loss of water and salts. Oral or intravenous replacement of fluids and salts as well as specific antibiotics is a possible treatment for cholera. Patients can be treated with an oral rehydration solution or, in severe cases, an intravenous fluid.