Production and Operations Management Essay Sample
Q1 ) Explain the basic competitory precedences considered while explicating operations scheme by a house?
Autonomic nervous system: Operationss scheme is the corporate concrete actions chosen. mandated. or stimulated by corporate scheme. It is. of class. implemented within the operations map. The operations scheme specifies how the house will use its operations capablenesss to back up the concern scheme. Operation advantages depend on its procedures and competitory precedences considered while set uping the capablenesss. The basic competitory precedences are: * Cost
Cost: Cost is a primary consideration while marketing a merchandise or service. A steadfast viing on a price/cost footing is able to supply consumers with an in-demand merchandise at a monetary value that is competitively lower than that offered by houses bring forthing the same or similar good/service. Lower Price and better quality of a merchandise will guarantee and higher profitableness. To gauge the existent cost of production. the operations director must turn to labor. stuffs. scrap coevalss. operating expense and other initial cost of design and development. QUALITY is defined by the client.
The Operations Manger chiefly looks into two facets viz. extremely public presentation design and Consistent quality. High Performance design includes superior characteristics. great lastingness. and convenience to services where as consistent design measures the frequence with which the merchandise meets its design specifications and performs best. Time: Faster bringing clip. on – clip bringing. and rapid development rhythm are the clip factors that operations scheme looks into. Faster bringing clip is the clip lapsed between the client order and the bringing. On clip bringing is the frequence with which the merchandise is delivered on clip. The development velocity is the elapsed clip from the thought coevals up to the concluding design and production of merchandises. Flexibilities: Firms may vie on their ability to supply either flexibleness of the merchandise or volume. Firms that can easy accept technology alterations their clients. The two types of Flexibilities are: * Customization
* Volume Flexibility
While Customization is the ability of the house to fulfill the specific demands of each of their clients. the volume flexibleness is the ability to speed up or slow the rate of production to manage the fluctuations in demand.
Q2: a -List the benefits of prediction?
Autonomic nervous system: There are three Classs of Benefits of Forecasting
Direct Cost Savings: nest eggs in outgo other than labors. print. travel costs. telephone etc. that can straight be attributed to the debut of the Intranet. These can be farther calculated in the three stairss: a ) Number of incidences of outgo in the clip period. B ) The Cost of each incidence.
degree Celsius ) The proportion of these that can be eliminated utilizing the intranet Labour Savings: nest eggs in the sum of clip required to transport out undertakings as a consequence of presenting the intranet. These can be expressed in proceedingss per individual per twenty-four hours. To cipher the nest eggs. split the figure of proceedingss saved by the figure of proceedingss in the twenty-four hours and multiply the size of the population and mean salary. Productivity Increase: additions in end product per individual attributable to the debut of intranet. expressed as a per centum. Because Personal productiveness has such a broad scope of deductions from organisation to organisation. hence it is likely easier to change over these to simple labour nest eggs. b- Explain the significance of works location determination?
Autonomic nervous system: A works location can be changed often since a big capital demands to be invested to construct the works and machinery in the selected country. Therefore. before choosing a works location. a long scope of prediction is to be made to anticipate the hereafter needs of the company. Location Decisions are made on footing of parametric quantities which make it suited for assorted considerations of providers and markets. While turn uping a works. the following long scope of calculating are to be considered: * The Company’s enlargement Plan and policy
* Diversification program for the merchandises
* Changing market Conditionss
* Changing beginnings of natural stuffs
* Many other factors that influence the pick of the location determinations. The chief Concern of the operations director will be the extent of flexibleness he/she has. This can be determined by the undermentioned inquiries: * What is the volume of production of different merchandises
* What operations have to be outsourced
* What will be the growing potency in that topographic point
Location Planing Procedure:
Planning is the most of import map of direction. particularly. when we have to cover with lands. edifices. and machineries.
Planing the location of the works: : Factors act uponing works location can be loosely divided into two types viz. : general factors and particular factors:
The general factors that influence the works location are listed as follows:
* Availability of land:
* Availability of inputs:
* Closeness to market topographic points:
* Communication installations:
* Government support:
* Housing and diversion:
The particular factors that influence the works location are:
* Economic stableness
* outside investings
* Cultural factors
* Joint ventures: support of large clip participants
Q 3 ) What do you understand by “line balancing” ? What happens if balance doesn’t be? Ans: Assembly line refers to a particular agreement of installations typically along a consecutive line or au-shaped line. entirely to bring forth assemblies or finished merchandises. The assembly starts in the signifier of a skeleton at one terminal and passes through several “work stations” where ; different operations are performed and constituents are added. and the concluding assembly is obtained after go throughing through consecutive phases. The line is arranged so as to bring forth a specified figure of merchandises over a certain clip period.
To ease easy climb of constituents and fast operations. the assembly moves at certain velocity and rolls over at the terminal of the line. A simple line ( typically set up for the intent of assembly ) consists of a series of work Stationss. and the entire work content of the merchandise. which is expressed in footings of the entire clip is divided among these workstations every bit. As the points move along the line. the work is progressed intermittently and leaves the line as a finished merchandise. Typically the aim is. to split the work content every bit among the workstations so that the workstations are loaded every bit equally as possible. This is known as reconciliation.
First. if such a balance is non achieved. a certain sum of inefficiency will originate because some Stationss will hold more work to execute than others. and all the Stationss are expected to treat same figure of points per period of clip. Second. unequal work content at different work Stationss leads to unequal work distribution and besides formation of waiting line of points. Hence. to guarantee a smooth flow. all the workstations are given the same clip to treat the points. The full line typically. on a manual or power-driven conveyer moves from workstation to workstation at a changeless rate. The clip required to finish the work allotted to each station is known as the “service time” and the clip available at each station is known as the “cycle time” . usually longer than the service clip.
The rhythm clip includes both the productive every bit good as the non-productive clip along with idle clip if any. Non productive clip includes clip for motion. handling and review clip. The allotment of work elements to a work station may besides be influenced by “zoning” restraints which occurs in two ways: positive districting restraint demands that certain operations have to be clubbed together because of certain sharing of resources. and negative zoning which insists that certain operations should be clubbed together because of intervention or struggle.
All these restraints make it really hard or impossible to accomplish perfect line balance and hence. a certain sum of equilibrating hold or balancing loss is inevitable. Balance hold is defined as the entire clip available to finish the given occupation and the entire clip required. The aim of line reconciliation is that. given a coveted rhythm clip. the effort is to delegate work elements to workstations to:
Minimise idle clip or reconciliation hold
Understate the figure of work Stationss
Distribute equilibrating hold equally between Stationss
Avoid go againsting any restraints
Q4 ) What do you understand by “line balancing” ? What happens if balance doesn’t be? Ans: Entire quality direction ( TQM ) has different attacks towards its accomplishment. The basic push of each of these is recognizing excellence. All the attacks have a batch in common ; nevertheless. the accent displacement from one to other. Some use an ‘integrated approach’ .
Following are some of the attacks to TQM:
Deming Wheel: Edward Deming is regarded as the American who taught the Nipponese about choice betterment. Deming’s doctrine helps organisations to better the quality of the merchandises and services they offer.
Deming’s attack is summarized in 14 points: 1. Constancy of intent for uninterrupted betterment. 2. Adopt the entire quality direction doctrine for economic intents. 3. Make non depend on review to present quality. 4. Make non present any concern based on monetary value entirely. 5. Better the system of production and service invariably. 6. Conduct meaningful preparation on the occupation. 7. Adopt modern methods of supervising and leading. 8. Remove fright from the heads of everyone connected with the organisation. 9. Remove barriers between sections and people. 10. Make non cheer. repetition mottos. and put up postings. 11. Make non set-up numerical quotas and work criterions. 12. Give pride of craft to the workingmans. 13. Education and preparation to be given smartly. 14. State and exhibit top management’s committedness for quality and productiveness.
Juran’s quality trilogy:
Joseph Juran like Edward Deming is considered as a legendary quality guru and is besides regarded as a advocate in distributing entire quality direction civilization. Harmonizing to Juran. the definition of quality is “Fitness for use” and is considered as most equal. Juran uses his celebrated cosmopolitan discovery sequence to implement quality programmes. The cosmopolitan discovery sequences are: * Proof of demand
* Project designation
* Top direction committedness.
* Diagnostic journey
* Remedial action:
Crosby’s absolutes of quality:
Philip Crosby is internationally known for the “Zero Defects” construct of quality. Like Deming. Crosby besides lays accent on top direction committedness and duty for planing the system. so that defects are non inevitable. He urged that there be no limitation on disbursement for accomplishing quality. In the long tally. keeping quality is more economical than compromising on its accomplishment. His absolutes can be listed as follows:
* Quality is conformity to demands. non ‘goodness’
* Prevention. non appraisal. is the way to quality
* Quality is measured as the monetary value paid for non-conformance and as indices
* Quality originates in all cabals.
Taguchi’s quality loss map:
Genichi Taguchi is a Nipponese quality guru and unlike other experts sees quality from a position of loss. He is non in favor of merely run intoing the specifications. but contends that the quality features should ever be near to the nominal or mark value. Taguchi’s contention is that quality comes from design. He believed that. interior decorators should do robust designs so that. merchandise can defy the variableness which tends to be relentless and give quality for longer periods. His nonsubjective in giving the loss map is to do makers gain that it is the mark value of the specification that should be sought to be achieved and non the allowable divergences.
Q5 ) a. What is meant by productiveness? Explain.
Autonomic nervous system: Productiveness is by and large expressed as the ratio of end products to inputs. Productivity = Input
While the above ratio may connote efficiency. productiveness is the value added for every unit of investing. Therefore. it is value added upon cost. Enhancement of productiveness is achieved by either cut downing the inputs for the same end product or increasing the end product by utilizing the same input. Productivity can be calculated for: * A individual operation
* A functional unit
* A section or division
A works Productivity is a step of the efficiency of the system and looks at the economic systems achieved during the procedures. Every procedure will hold a figure of subscribers which help in accomplishing the maximal productiveness. The procedures are people. machines. easing goods. accessory equipments. and engineering. Each of these elements efforts to heighten the part of other elements. Opportunities exist at all phases of the work flow in the full system to present steps for increasing the productiveness. Quite frequently. productiveness may endure because of several jobs associated with different elements of production. In such instances. quality circles are really efficient in put to deathing low cost undertakings by utilizing non-intrusive methods of bettering productiveness and quality throughout the administration.
5 B ) What do you intend by operations scheme? Explain in brief
Autonomic nervous system: Operationss scheme is defined as the set of determinations that are warranted in the operational procedures in order to back up the competitory schemes of the concern. The aims stated supra will give the house a competitory advanatage in the merchandises or services that are served to the clients. Operationss scheme is a long-range concern program for the company’s merchandises and will supply a route map for the operational maps to be pursued. Therefore. the strategic determinations include the capacity to be built into the production system. the type of procedures and fabricating engineering to be adopted. the nature of merchandises to be produced. and the type of stuff flow and other logistics required to accomplish the degree of public presentation. Planning of operations scheme is really indispensable as it will enable the administration to react to market demands in an effectual mode. It besides gives the chance to aline the resources and fabricating activities to bring forth and present the merchandises and go successful in the market.
Q 6 ) What is logical procedure patterning? What is physical modeling?
Autonomic nervous system: Logical procedure modeling:
Logical procedure modeling is the representation of seting together all the activities of concern procedure in item and doing a representation of them. The initial informations collected has to be arranged in a logical mode so that. links are made between nodes for doing the workflow smooth. The stairss to be followed to do the work drum sander are given as follows: 1. Capture relevant informations in item to be acted upon. 2. Establish controls and bound entree to the informations during procedure executing. 3. Determine which undertaking in the procedure is to be done and besides the subsequent undertakings in that procedure. 4. Make certain that all relevant informations is available for all the undertakings. 5. Make the relevant and appropriate informations available for that undertaking. 6. Establish a mechanism to bespeak credence of the consequences after every undertaking or procedure. This is to hold an confidence that flow is traveling in front with achievements in the coveted way.
Logical procedure theoretical account consists of merely the concern activities and shows the connectivity among them. The procedure theoretical account is a representation of the concern activities and is different from the engineering dependent 1s. Therefore. we have a theoretical account that is singularly structured merely for concern activities. Computer programmes are besides present in the entire system. This allows the concern oriented executives to be in control of the inputs. procedures and end products. The logical procedure theoretical account improves command on the entree to informations. It besides identifies. who is in ownership of informations at different nodes in the dataflow web that has been structured. A few of the logical mold formats are as follows:
Procedure descriptions with undertaking sequences and informations references
Flow charts with assorted activities and relationships
Physical procedure modeling
Physical procedure modeling is concerned with the existent design of database meeting the demands of the concern. Physical modeling trades with the transition of the logical theoretical account into a relational theoretical account. Objects get defined at the scheme degree. The objects here are tabular arraies created on the footing of entities and properties. A database is defined for the concern. All the information is put together to do the database package specific. This means that the objects during physical patterning vary on the database package being used.