NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN
LEBANON Essay, Research Paper
? Desertification and Drought
? Fresh water
? Land Management
? Oceans and Coastal Areas
? Toxic Chemicals
? Waste and Hazardous Materials
Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies
The Ministry of Agriculture ( MoA ) and The Rural Development and Natural Wealth Directorate are most responsible for agribusiness. National and International NGOs and UN organisations are besides active.
Programs and Undertakings
In footings of rural development, MoA is implementing a $ 5.5 million internationally-supported incorporate rural development programme in the Baalbeck-Hermel part to supply small- and medium-scale husbandmans aid which would take to sustainable human development through startup activities. These activities include betterment of wellness, societal services, instruction and income-generating non-agricultural activities.
Three wide countries exist where agribusiness patterns are holding inauspicious effects:
? Misuse of H2O & # 8211 ; the present usage of irrigation H2O is inefficient with high losingss and uneconomical applications to most harvests.
? Misuse of agrochemicals & # 8211 ; agrochemicals misuse represent a serious wellness jeopardy with an pressing demand for pesticide control through jurisprudence enforcement ; fertilisers pose a less serious wellness jeopardy, but their usage appears to be hit-or-miss and may be polluting H2O resources.
? Soil eroding from land forsaking and overgrazing.
Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising
Farmer capacity and consciousness edifice is ongoing. In rural countries support for groups like adult females is provided to assist forestall migration to urban countries. Additionally, through UNDP, international aid to local NGOs is assisting vulnerable groups such as adult females and the handicapped. NGOs like the YWCA have programmes of their ain with similar ends. YWCA-USA has provided YWCA Lebanon with a $ 50,000 fund for rural country support.
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This information is based on Lebanon & # 8217 ; s entry to the fifth Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.
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Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies
The Ministry of Environment ( protection of the environment ) , Ministry of Energy, and Hydraulic Resources ( direction of energy and energy resources ) .
Other ministries are responsible the direction of related issues. For case, the Ministry of Public Health is responsible for wellness and wellness related issues, the Ministry of Interior to implement ordinance refering to auto emanations, and the municipalities for all enforcement at local degree.
The Ministry of Environment bill of exchanges decrees/laws that are forwarded to concerned Ministries ( Ministry of Energy, Hydraulic and Electrical Resources, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Health, etc. ) for reappraisal and remark, and so to the Council of Ministers for concluding blessing and activation. In the instance of Torahs, bill of exchange Torahs are sent to the Parliament where they will be capable to an in-depth survey by the Environment Parliamentary Committee. The sanctioned law/decree will be disseminated through the Official Gazette.
In the instance of implementing internationally funded undertakings, e.g. the Ozone Office ( a UNDP Project executed at the Ministry of Environment ) , the Ministry of Environment along with the Ministries of Finance, Industry, Education, gave consent to implement the Ozone Country Programme. In early 1994, a National Working Committee on Ozone Depleting Substances was formed to back up the Ministry of Environment in the ODS issue. This Committee has representatives from the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Industry and Petroleum, Ministry of Education, Department of Customs and Chamber of Industry and Commerce, Association Libanaise pour la Maitrise de l? Energie ( ALME ) , Lebanese Universities ( research establishments ) and Industry Association. The function of the National Working Committee is to be the chief advisory organic structure in ODS and Montreal Protocol related issues in Lebanon and is responsible for the readying of governmental/publicly supported steps to phase out the ODS in Lebanon.
The same processs were applied during the executing of the Climate Change Project, and now for the undertaking on? Options to methyl bromide? , these two undertakings are UNDP undertakings executed at the Ministry of Environment.
Finally, the Council for Development and Reconstruction prepared a Five Year Development Plan ( 2000? 2004 ) with the purpose to turn to societal issues, achieve balanced development through concentration on less developed parts, and upgrade productive sectors. The rate of air fouling gases and deforestation were adopted as chief indexs for planning and executing of undertakings during the defined period.
Governments for decision-making are linked to cardinal authorities. Local decision-making takes topographic point through Mohafazats ( Governorates ) that provide municipalities with determinations and Torahs required to be implemented. Then local governments have the full right to implement the application of these Torahs through the municipal constabulary.
The Ozone Office was established to implement duties required by Montreal Protocol. The undertaking targeted the public sector for presenting appropriate regulative and legal mechanisms, the private sector for phasing out ODS, and populace at big to be cognizant of ODS negative effects.
Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations
The Decision 52/1 ( 1996 ) issued by the Ministry of Environment, and refering to specifications and rates relative to cut downing pollution of air, H2O and dirt. Four Annexes were included with relevant involvement to the protection of the ambiance ( Article 1 ) , these are:
– Annex 11: Maximal value allowed for the emanations of air pollutants ensuing for used burned oils ;
– Annex 12: Maximal value allowed for the emanations of air pollutants ensuing from domestic waste incineration ;
– Annex 13: Maximal value allowed for the emanations of air pollutants emitted from cement mills ;
– Annex 14: Maximal value allowed for ambient air pollutants.
The Law 6603 ( issued 1995, Ministry of Environment ) defines in its article 1 the conditions for usage of big vehicles ( trucks ) , coachs, Diesel operating vehicles, in add-on to supervising the acceptable norm and quality for fume emanations. This jurisprudence defines the upper limit allowed chief pollutants emitted by these vehicles harmonizing to the undermentioned rates:
Type of pollutantsMaximum allowed
Carbon monoxide10 mg/m3 Carbon Monoxide ( CO )
Nitrogen Dioxide0.1 mg/m3 Nitrogen dioxide ( NO2 )
Hydrocarbures0.16 mg/m3 Hydrocarbres ( HC )
Smoke0.075 mg/m3 smoke ( TSP )
Besides the article 2 of the same jurisprudence defines Diesel specifications as follows:
– S should non transcend 0.5 % ;
– Lead free ;
– Water free ;
– Residues free.
Decision 15/1, 2000 ( amending determination 23/1, 1995 ) refering to censoring the usage and import of vehicle fire asphyxiators incorporating halons.
Presently, work is continuing on proclaiming determinations refering to licencing system for import and export, censoring importing equipment incorporating ODS, and specifically CFCs.
An EIA edict is presently under readying by the Unit of Planning and Programming, a World Bank undertaking executed at the Ministry of Environment. This edict would indirectly lend to the protection of the ambiance by modulating industrial and development undertakings to take topographic point and necessitating appropriate extenuation steps for the execution of any works bring oning air pollution. An EIA chapter is provided in the Code of the Environment.
The undertaking for? Strengthening the Permitting and Auditing System for Industries? ( SPASI ) is taking at beef uping the permitting, monitoring and scrutinizing system for industries through the development of necessary statute law and the debut of equal tools. In this regard, environmental quality criterions will be prepared as one of the aims set by the undertaking. SPASI is funded by EU-LIFE Third Countries, managed by UNDP and executed at the Ministry of Environment.
Finally, the Code of the Environment ( that is still in the Parliament for reappraisal since 1998 ) proposed by the Ministry of Environment stipulates in the Chapter 2- Section 14 the mechanisms needed for environmental monitoring on the regulative and proficient facets. Chapter 5, subdivision one, puts in topographic point the footing for set uping national criterions, following steps for cut downing ingestion and importing points and gases listed in the extensions refering to the conventions ratified by Lebanon, developing options to fuel, conserving and developing green screen, in add-on to enforcement regulations and ordinances.
Proposals to amend Law 6603 suggests inducements and steps such as following lower monetary values for leadless fuel monetary values compared to leaded fuel. Regulative steps would include the obligatory usage of catalytic convertors, one-year reviews of auto exhausters, etc.
Decision-Making: Schemes, Policies and Plans
A national GHG extenuation scheme has been elaborated by the squad of experts of the Climate Change Project ( GEF/UNDP funded undertaking ) in 1999, and introduced in the Technical Annex to Lebanon? s First National Communication Report to UNFCCC, which assesses and evaluates in inside informations executable options for GHG emanation decrease in the undermentioned sectors:
– Electricity supply ;
– Building sector relation to edifice equipment and energy usage industry ;
– Transportation system sector ;
– Forestry sector ; and
– Waste sector.
The above-named scheme includes little, medium and big term ends.
Conserving and increasing nursery gas sinks ;
The constitution of protected countries and increasing the flora screen is a chief precedence of the Ministry of Environment? s programme for the undermentioned old ages. In add-on, all re-afforestation activities and enterprises undertaken by NGOs and local communities are extremely supported.
Extenuating ozone depletion ;
The undermentioned programme was developed based on the overall scheme of Montreal Protocol:
Phase I: 1998-2000:
? Entire ODS stage out in aerosol industries ;
? Entire ODS stage out in froth industries ;
? Entire ODS stage out in production of commercial and industrial infrigidation industries ;
? Execution of decrease, recovery and recycling programme during infrigidation and commercial units care.
? Execution of Methyl Bromide options Demonstration Project.
Phase II: 2001-2003:
? Entire stage out in production of commercial infrigidation and froth sectors.
? Retrofiting of all commercial and industrial infrigidation units,
? Continuance of the decrease, recovery and recycling programme
? Execution of Methyl Bromide Investment Projects.
? Halon Bank.
? Rules, prohibitions and ordinances.
Phase III: 2003-2005:
? Progressive lessening of ODS due to the decrease in the figure of nomadic air conditioners and family iceboxs utilizing CFCs ( 20 % less per twelvemonth )
? Entire stage out of ODS
? Monitoring and rating.
The Methyl Bromide Alternative Demonstration Project was an result of the Ozone Office. Managed by UNDP and executed at the Ministry of Environment, the undertaking aims at showing the efficaciousness of assorted chemical and non-chemical methods as proficient and economical options to methyl bromide. The non-chemical methods include the dirt solarisation, bio-fumigation, and usage of immune assortments where available. A national scheme to implement methyl bromide will be formulated at a last stage of the undertaking execution upon obtaining of all consequences of the presentation sites.
The proposed scenarios were elaborated based on 1994 informations. Two programs were proposed ( 1 ) a short term program ( 1994-2004 ) and ( 2 ) the long term program ( 2005- 2040 ) . These projections are linked to what the authorities has announced in footings of policies and precedences, e.g. committedness to full Restoration of the coevals, transmittal and distribution webs.
The undertaking outcomes will be sustained through the web of focal points that encompass all concerned ministries and establishments. Another undertaking the Top-Up Project for Climate Change will help in reenforcing this measure by measuring the engineering needs required to measure nursery gas emanations in the different sectors.
The enforced scheme in Lebanon is the overall scheme adopted by Montreal Protocol in stage of ODS ingestion and production ( Lebanon? s authorization is based on modulating the ingestion forms since the Country is non a manufacturer ) .
trategy which is implemented by the Ozone Office ( GEF/UNDP ) , a programme executed at the Ministry of Environment, includes among others preparation of needed Torahs, covering other industrial sectors for a complete stage out of ODS, every bit good construct the capacities of the assorted national participants of this programme.
Strategy related to transboundary air pollution is non elaborated yet since Lebanon is a non a signer of the Convention on Transboundary Air Pollution, which is still restricted to European states.
Decision-Making: Major Groups engagement
Scientists, university academicians and merely one NGO ( Association Libanaise pour la Maitrise de l? Energie ) are extremely involved in ( 1 ) the Steering Committees refering to Climate Change and Ozone Office, ( 2 ) research programmes and ( 3 ) proficient advisers. Their function is instead consultative with a high engagement degree.
Industries are extremely involved in the Ozone Office activities as ( 1 ) mark groups in phasing out ODS substances and ( 2 ) decision-makers in take parting to the preparation of regulative and legal tools.
Womans, kids and young person are instead included in consciousness elevation activities, with no consequence on decision-making procedure.
Programs and Undertakings
No steps have been introduced yet to the industrial and agricultural sectors, although nursery gas emanations in Lebanon chiefly come from energy activities, responsible for 85 % of all CO2 emanations. Recommendations were proposed in the Technical Annex to Lebanon? s First National Communication carried out in the model of activities of the GEF/UNDP Climate Chang undertaking ( 1999 ) , the results of this study are still expecting to be studied by the concerned ministries.
The CO2 emanations from energy usage in fabrication industries and building represent 24 % of the energy sector? s entire emanations. Harmonizing to informations of 1994, Lebanese makers consumed 39.15 million of gegajoules of fuel for heat and power, including both the fuel used straight and the fuel burnt remotely to bring forth electricity. In add-on to being processed by burning, CO2 is generated in the calcination of carbonates when fabricating cement, Fe and glass. However, the Technical Annex proposed extenuation scenarios for cut downing CO2 emanations at 10 % price reduction rate. Most of the extenuation options for the industrial sector are concerned with the betterment of energy efficiency, either in the usage of electricity for motors and illuming or in cleaner burning processes in boilers and furnaces through fuel shift or replacing with efficient systems. e.g. , Bakeries fuel exchanging from Diesel to LPG, Natural Gas replacing fuel Oil, cement decrease 10-20 % with pre-heat, and so on.
Sing the agribusiness sector, the same study proposed some recommendations to be adopted at the governmental, private and single degrees. These steps are: lower population growing, sustainable and economic H2O usage, dirt birthrate preservation by land renewal, less ordinances to extenuate the decomposition of estate ownership, advanced agricultural techniques used and governmental remission policy for societal grounds. These steps were suggested based on the increasing demographic force per unit area on the seashore and inland, urban enlargement on the disbursal of agricultural lands, and the alterations in the agricultural patterns.
However, it is deserving adverting that the Climate Change Project paved the manner for two major programmes that would cut down emanations and concentrations of nursery gas, these are: ( 1 ) the constitution of the Energy efficiency Center, and ( 2 ) the Amplification of the thermic edifice energy efficient guidelines.
Finally, it is deserving adverting that two international programmes are aiming the preservation of Lebanese woods in Lebanon. These are ( 1 ) the Protected Area Project ( GEF ) administered by UNDP and implemented at the Ministry of Environment, with purpose to pull off and protect three militias ( out of which two are forest, Barouk Cedar Reserve with 500 km2 and the Horsh Ehden Reserve ) , and ( 2 ) an EU aid to forest protection along with support to the sustainable development of forested countries in Lebanon. This programme aims at developing forest guards and applied scientists of the Ministry of Agriculture and the amplification of programs for sustainable forest direction. Three pilot sites of sustainable forestry have been developed successfully in three different parts of Lebanon.
Air pollution is considered among the most serious jobs in Lebanon chiefly due to its increasing impacts on wellness ( asthma and other respiratory jobs ) although Lebanese dwellers are still incognizant of the linkage to be made between their healthy jobs and the position of the surrounding environment where they live. This pollution is ensuing from the high denseness of people populating in urban countries ( around 350 inhabitants/km2 ) missing the minimal demands of green screen. In add-on, more than a million autos are operational in Lebanon ( more than 50 % in Beirut Capital with an norm of 3 individuals per auto ) . It is to observe that more than 65 % of industries are located on the coastline highest in footings of population growing.
After the war ended, environment was non considered a precedence. Therefore, edifice substructure, set uping touristic composites, building marinas, licencing industries and preies every bit good as spread outing residential composites were achieved on the disbursals of the flora screen estimated now to non transcend 6 % of the entire Lebanese surface country. Finally, it is non to bury the bad agricultural patterns ( high usage of pesticides, bad irrigation techniques, de-weeding doing forest fires most of the clip ) . All these factors exert an impact on the ambiance, some of them reflecting an immediate negative consequence, others will be more seeable at medium and long term.
A sum of 75.000 hour angle of wood trees ( 65.000 evergreen and 10.000 deciduous ) , every bit good as 50.280.000 non-forest trees, harmonizing to estimations of the concluding study of Lebanon? s First National Communication ( 1994 ) .
The non-forest trees include ( 1 ) 49.794.000 farm and small town trees ( 21.980.000 of evergreen fruit and olive trees and 27.814.000 of deciduous fruit trees ) ( 2 ) 486.000 urban trees ( 450.000 evergreen urban trees and 36.000 deciduous urban trees ) .
However, the study noted that woods in 1994 constituted a minor beginning of C dioxide instead than a sink due to the increasing loss of woody biomass stocks and to forest fires. Finally the entire sum of Carbon dioxide emanation from land-use alteration and forestry was estimated to 200.413225kt.
Chlorofluorocarbons bead from 1 million dozenss ( 1990 ) to 150.000 dozenss ( 1998-1999 ) . Very unsmooth estimations indicate that this volume is decomposed into 75 % of the entire sum trapped into infrigidation and 25 % go to aerosols and froths.
Changes in Methyl bromide were noticed as 297 dozenss ( 1998 ) to 267 dozenss ( 2000 ) due to diminishing handiness in the market and forming awareness runs.
Annex 11 maximum values to be respected during oil incineration
( Incinerators of thermic value greater than 3 MW ) .
Cadmium ( Cd ) 0.5
Nickel ( Ni ) 1
Chrome ( Cr ) + Cupper ( Cu ) + Vanadium ( V ) 1.5
Lead ( Pb ) 5
Chlore in HCL100
Fluor in HF5
Sulfur Dioxide ( SO2 ) –
Beginning: Decision 52/1 ( 1996 ) & # 8211 ; Annex 11: Maximal value allowed for the emanations of air pollutants ensuing for used burned oils.
Valuess to be respected during incineration of domestic waste
* 3 tons/ hour1-3 tons/ hour* 1 ton/hour
ElementMax. value mg/m3Max. value mg/m3Max. value mg/m3
Sum suspended bodies20010030
PB + Cr + Cu + Mn-55
Ni + As-11
Cd + Hg-0.20.2
Cl in HCl25010050
F in HF-42
Beginning: Decision 52/1 ( 1996 ) & # 8211 ; Annex 12: Maximal value allowed for the emanations of air pollutants ensuing from domestic waste incineration.
Limited allowed emanations from cement mills
Sum suspended organic structures
Max. bounds ( mg/m3 )
Furnaces under construction50
Cooler ( in instance of deficiency of gas recycling ) 100
Nitrogen Oxides ( NO2 )
Limits ( mg/Nm3 )
Furnaces runing through dry procedure with heat recuperation* 1200
Furnaces operating of dry or semi-humid processes* 1500
Furnaces runing on wet procedure ( without extra heat ) * 1800
Limits ( mg/Nm3 )
Cd +Ti + Hg0.2
AS + Co + Ni + Se + Te1
Sb + Cr + Cu + Sn + Mn + Pb + Va + Zn5
Beginnings: Decision 52/1 ( 1996 ) & # 8211 ; Annex 13: Maximal value allowed for the emanations of air pollutants emitted from cement mills ;
Maximal allowed values for ambient air pollutants
PollutantMaximal value UG/m3Exposure continuance
Sulfur dioxide ( SO2 ) 350120801 hour24 hours1 twelvemonth
Nitrogen Dioxide ( NO2 ) 2001501001 hour24 hours1 twelvemonth
Ozone ( O3 ) 1501001 hour8 hours
Carbon monoxide ( CO ) 30000100001 hour8 hours
Sum suspended bodies12024 hours
Black suspended organic structures less than 10 micrometers ( PM*10 ) 8024 hours
Beginning: Decision 52/1 ( 1996 ) & # 8211 ; Annex 14: Maximal value allowed for ambient air pollutants
Apart from set uping national protected countries, no touchable steps were detected to land-used patterns, whether in the Directorate General for Urban Planning or at the Ministries concerned by the conveyance system and the industrial sector. It is hoped that the Integrated Coastal Area Management Programme in Lebanon financed by the Mediterranean Action Plan and executed at the Ministry of Environment will help in showing an effectual and incorporate land-use planning that would cut down harmful consequence on homo and natural resources in the state ( expected to be launched in early 2001 ) .
In 1992, Lebanon used 886.6 ODP Tons of ODS, tantamount to 0.23 kilograms per capita. In 1993, Lebanon imported and used 923.1 ODP Tons of ODS, tantamount to 0.24 Kg per capita. Between 1992 and 1998, the ingestion decreased to 536.82 Tonss tantamount to 0.13 per capita ingestion. The chief substances used are CFC 11, CFC 12.
There is no ODS production in Lebanon. Measures are being done to phase out ODS consumed in the industrial sector. Progress has been made in phasing out these substances from 41 icebox companies, 12 major makers of domestic and industrial air-conditioning equipment, 9 froth companies, 8 aerosol companies. Some infrigidation and air-conditioning care companies have already introduced some reduced ODP substances like HCFC 22 as refrigerants. Some foam manufacturers in Lebanon have been get downing to utilize H2O as a blowing agent.
Some activities are taking topographic point to protect woods and marine resources through the constitution of protected countries ( five protected countries by-law, and other 10 countries by ministerial edict ) and modulating the piscary sector ( e.g. prohibition of dynamite usage ) . Unfortunately, these activities are still non widely applicable and lack an incorporate scheme and an action program to be put in topographic point, adopted, implemented and above all, to be enforced by the concerned national governments.
The baseline for this scheme and the action program are already proposed in the Technical Annex to Lebanon? s First National Communication. This Annex pointed out to forest countries as the chief proportion of land considered as nursery gas sinks. Based on statistics of the twelvemonth 1994, forest land consist of land covered with forest with two degrees of crown denseness screen ( 1 ) more than 40 % and ( 2 ) from 10 to 40 % , and barren where the Crown screen is less than 10 % . Wasteland includes forests and rangelands covering 60.000 and 147.000 hectares severally in twelvemonth 1994. To increase nursery sinks, the undermentioned extenuation options should be adopted:
– The protection and preservation of natural woods and the betterment of forest direction ; and
– Increasing the bio-mass denseness of bing and under-stocked woods, through increasing of the country of more than 40 % crown screen from 32.000 hour angle in 1994 to 55.000 hour angle by twelvemonth 2040 ;
– The re-afforestation of 38.000 hour angle of forests up to the twelvemonth 2040.
The survey made on Air pollution in Lebanon made by Harvard Institute in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment showed some steps on contaminated air in Beirut. These consequences could be summarized as follows:
– Angstrom terrible pollution in lead making 8 micrograms/m3, while the upper limit allowed international rate is 1.5 micrograms/m3, micrograms/m3, due to the fact that 85 % of drivers are still utilizing leaded fuel.
– 44 % of the blood samples taken at the American University of Beirut showed an sum of lead transcending 16 micrograms/ decilitre, while the international allowed rate is 10 micrograms/deciliter ;
– pollution with particulates making the two-base hit ;
– pollution with ozone gas due to the conveyance system ;
– Pollution with other gases such as C monoxide and S dioxide.
On the other manus, the same survey pointed out to some facts relative to wellness impact of air pollution in Beirut. Harmonizing to the survey, 1 million dwellers live in Beirut ( out of 3.5 million in Lebanon ) , and the estimated figure of deceases is 28.700 per twelvemonth in all of Lebanon and 8.200 individuals in Beirut. Out of 150.000 wellness instances admitted to Hospitals in Beirut, 15 % are admitted for diseases affected by air pollution. However no interruption down by age, sex or diagnosing is available.
Finally, all surveies on air pollution are still concentrated on metropoliss instead than rural countries due to the badness of instances reached in urban countries.
The chief jobs could be summarized in the:
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